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Every structural material has special properties that make it stand out from other materials under certain conditions. As the requirements placed on the structures used in lightweight construction are becoming increasingly complex, structural development is increasingly moving in the direction of high-performance materials and material systems.

In this context the following is of interest

  • property profiles of individual material compositions, because metallic materials in particular show high performance potentials that are far from exhausted.
  • The aim is to combine different metallic and non-metallic material compositions in such a way that the individual material-specific advantages are optimally exploited in the composite.

As a cooperation partner for industry and research, the focus of the Lightweight Construction Materials Department is on the systematic, application-oriented and demand-oriented optimisation and further development of such materials and material systems, including component production and joining and testing methods.

Our activities include

  • Materials: Aluminium and titanium alloys, high-strength steels, property graded metals, metal-metal composites, hybrid composites, functionally integrated materials
  • Manufacturing process: Material-oriented additive manufacturing, alloy development, powder production, heat treatment, quenching, hardening, joining, testing

 

Projects Lightweight Materials

 

UBRA ENABLE

The aim of the project is the ML-assisted development of an antibacterial Ti6Al4V-xCu alloy for laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) to reduce implant-associated infections.

Approximately 40,000 endoprostheses are replaced in Germany every year, with bacterial infections being the cause in about 20 % of cases. To counteract this, the aim is to develop an alloy with antibacterial properties from Ti6Al4V and the addition of copper (Cu). Cu has an antibacterial effect in that Cu ions penetrate the bacterial cell walls, while Ti6Al4V is an established implant alloy. Ti6Al4V-xCu is not commercially available, so its clinical suitability is unknown.  

For economic reasons, primary powder mixtures will be produced and alloyed in-situ for the investigations. It is planned to investigate powder mixtures with different copper contents in a range from 1 Ma.-% to 10 Ma.-%. Scientific studies show that LPBF in-situ alloying of Cu with Ti6Al4V powders already leads to inhomogeneous precipitation states and porosity between 1.4 Ma.- % and 6 Ma.- %. However, samples of high relative density and with homogeneous Cu distribution are basic requirements for a HIP treatment (hot isostatic pressing) to adjust copper-induced contact sterilisation by finely distributed Ti2Cu phases. Against this background, a machine learning (ML) method for efficient LPBF parameter and material screening will be developed. Using LPBF single layer experiments and an image analytical approach, suitable process parameters for the in-situ alloying of Ti6Al4V-xCu will be identified for the first time and the alloy properties (relative density, antibacterial activity, mechanical properties) will be determined.

This project is supported by the U Bremen Research Alliance with funding from the state of Bremen as part of the AI Center for Health Care.

Collaboration: Leibniz IWT-WT and University of Bremen Advanced Ceramics

Funding: UBRA 2022

https://www.iwt-bremen.de/fileadmin/user_upload/UBRA_Logo_AI-Center_2021_RZ_Signatur.png

Contact:
M. Eng. Selina Müller
Tel.: 0421-218 51334
E-Mail: s.mueller(at)iwt-bremen.de

AM-MikroMod - Acquisition of temperature gradients and local cooling rates in laser additive manufactured components to describe and modify microstructural properties

The aim of the cooperation between Fraunhofer IWM and Leibniz IWT is a modification of the microstructure of laser additively manufactured Ti6Al4V components based on the locally and time-dependent induced energy.

This will be done by a detailed description of the temperature history by means of in-situ high-speed infrared measurement and derived thermal modeling of a laser additively manufactured component. The temperatures and temperature gradients measured in the molten pool, its surroundings and the entire component will be used to derive process and scan strategies for specific local thermal loads, e.g. as a function of the component height, installation space, support strategy and layer thickness. This should allow targeted grading or homogenization of the material. The local cooling rate during laser additive manufacturing is a decisive factor for the microstructural properties of Ti6Al4V in terms of grain size and formation of certain phases. From an exact recording of the local heating and cooling rates as well as their correlation with the component microstructure and the mechanical properties, generic correlations are derived by means of simple artificial neural networks.

Processing: Leibniz-IWT Lightweight Materials, Fraunhofer IWM

Funding: BMWK- AiF/IGF (22102 N)

Duration: 01.02.2022 until 31.07.2024

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
M. Sc. Mika Altmann
Phone: +49421 218 51414
E-Mail: altmann(at)iwt-bremen.de

 

InnoHatch - Innovative Hatching Strategies for the Reduction of Support Structures in Powder Bed Based Laser Beam Melting

The goal of the InnoHatch project is the strong reduction of the necessary support structures in powder bed based laser beam melting by developing a reliable simulation based method for the automatic component specific adaptation of the hatching strategies.

An important part of the additive process chain is the generation of support structures. Depending on the component, these can account for up to 30% of the total component volume. The support structures to be removed in post-processing account for up to 15% of the total costs. For this reason, InnoHatch has set itself the goal of drastically reducing the number of support structures.
Intelligent component-specific planning of the hatching strategies (position and sequence of the laser paths) based on simulations should make the majority of the support points superfluous. In this way, it will be possible to dispense with at least 50% of the support structures, thereby increasing productivity by up to 15%. On the one hand, components can be built up faster by up to 80% due to the reduction in material consumption for the support structures, and on the other hand, the amount of post-processing required is reduced by up to 50%.

This project was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Processing: WT-LW, AMSIS GmbH

Funding: EFRE_FUE0638B

Duration: 01.09.2020 - 01.06.2022

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
M.Sc. Lisa Husemann
Tel.: +49421 218 51325
E-Mail: husemann@iwt-bremen.de

 

 

VerA distortion compensation in aluminum die casting process chains

The aim of the VerA project is to develop a method of compensating for process-induced residual stresses in aluminum die casting during production. The complete process chain from casting to heat treatment is considered.

The motivation of the project is the economical production of large-area, thin-walled die cast integral components that meet the lightweight construction requirements of the automotive industry. Currently, cost-intensive measures such as straightening operations are necessary to compensate for distortion. In the process chain under consideration, from casting to heat treatment, locally controlled quenching is used to influence distortion and internal stresses during heat treatment. Quenching is performed by adaptive spray field systems. When adapting the spray field, component-specific data from process monitoring are used so that warpage can be compensated for by optimum local cooling rates.

This project was funded by the German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF).

Working on the project: IWT-Verfahrenstechnik, IWT-Leichtbauwerkstoffe, IFAM

Funding: BMWi-AiF

Duration: 01.04.2022 - 30.09.2024

Contact:
M.Sc. Lisa Husemann
Tel.: +49421 218 51325
E-Mail: husemann@iwt-bremen.de

Dilyan Kamenov
Tel.: +49421 218 51231
E-Mail: d.kamenov(at)iwt.uni-bremen.de

 

LegoLas - In-situ alloy variation in powder bed based laser beam melting

The aim of the DFG research project is the exact production of variably alloyed samples by means of powder bed based laser beam melting.

The production of variably alloyed samples is to be realized by an approach developed at Leibniz-IWT, consisting of a process combination of suspension pressure technology and powder bed based laser beam melting. This process, which is to be automated, should be able to produce graded structures with specific lower-alloyed and higher-alloyed regions as required. The basis of these different alloy variants is always the same starting powder within a manufacturing process. Furthermore, the research project will examine in detail the distribution of the alloying element both in the component space as a result of the gas flow and in the remelted component volume. The aim is to achieve a broad understanding of the recyclability of the starting powder used, without possible impurities of the applied alloying element influencing subsequent processes.

This project is funded by the German Research Foundation.

Processing: WT-LW, BIAS GmbH

Funding: TO 1395/1-1

Duration: 01.07.2021 - 30.06.2024

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:

Dr.-Ing. Anastasiya Tönjes
Tel.: 0421 218 51491
E-Mail: toenjes(at)iwt-bremen.de    

M.Sc. Marcel Hesselmann
Tel.: 0421 218 64549
E-Mail: hesselmann(at)iwt-bremen.de

UBRA Portal

The core of the project is the investigation and optimisation of the additive manufacturing process through automatic selection and adaptation of suitable parameter sets of the manufacturing process and the material selection through approximate and probalistic predictor functions.

Endoprosthetic implant fittings, such as hip and knee joints, contribute to a higher quality of life and represent an established procedure. The Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the materials used for this. This alloy has a high specific strength, stiffness, biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In addition to forged or cast endoprostheses, these are now also manufactured with patient-specific geometries using laser additive manufacturing from the powder bed (Laser Powder Bed Fusion, LPBF). A certain amount of residual porosity in LPBF-produced objects is unavoidable. A distinction is made between gas porosity, bonding defects and keyhole porosity. Any type of porosity can lead to fatal failure, as it acts as a crack initiation point, especially under dynamic loading. LPBF objects are therefore subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for critical applications.

The core of the project is the investigation and optimisation of the additive manufacturing process through automatic selection and adaptation of suitable parameter sets of the manufacturing process and the material selection through approximate and probalistic predictor functions. To this end, machine-approximated prediction models will first be derived that allow the failure and service life of the components to be estimated on the basis of the process parameters and other sensory manufacturing data (forward model). With this knowledge, the inverse problem (backward model) should finally be obtained in order to be able to estimate the optimal manufacturing parameters from given result parameters of the products (properties).

This project is supported by the U Bremen Research Alliance with funding from the state of Bremen within the framework of the AI Center for Health Care.

Working on: Leibniz IWT-WT and University of Bremen

Funding: UBRA 2021

Contact:
M. Sc. Mika Altmann
Tel.: 0421-218 51414
E-Mail: altmann(at)iwt-bremen.de

TIRIKA - Technologies and repair processes for sustainable aviation in a circular economy

As a research partner in this joint project, Leibniz-IWT supports the goal of environmentally friendly aviation.

The research focuses on increasing the degree of lightweight construction, the use of materials for new propulsion technologies and increasing the service life of highly relevant components. In this context, research is being conducted on improving the mechanical properties of laser-additively manufactured Ti6Al4V components. Novel heat treatment processes are to be developed that exploit the mechanical potential of laser-additive manufactured components while taking into account their special microstructure.

Processing: WT-LW, joint project under the direction of Airbus Operations GmbH.

Funding: LuFo VI-2 20W2103J

Duration: 01.01.2022 until 31.03.2025

Contact:
Dr.-Ing. Christian Werner
Tel: +49421 218 51354
E-Mail: werner(at)iwt-bremen.de

HIP⁴AM - Hot-Isostatic Pressing for Additive Manufacturing

As part of the project "Hot-Isostatic Pressing for Additive Manufacturing - HIP⁴AM", the process chain for additive manufacturing (3D printing) of high-strength metallic components was completed at Leibniz-IWT Bremen through the procurement of a hot-isostatic press.

The press allows heat treatment up to 1400°C under an isostatic gas pressure of up to 2070 bar. In combination with the integrated quenching capability, the development of combined HIP heat treatment processes is possible.

The system complements the institute's existing continuous process chain of additive manufacturing from powder to tested component and enables the investigation of the technological potential of these processes. The procurement was supported with funding from the ERDF program Bremen 2014-2020.

Bearbeitung: WT-LW, WT-WB, ECOMAT

Förderung: EFRE-Programm Bremen 2014-2020

Laufzeit: 04/2019 – 04/2021

Contact:
M.Sc. Daniel Knoop
Tel: +49-421/51435
E-Mail: dknoop(at)iwt-bremen.de

CustoMat3D – Tailored LAM-aluminum alloys for highly functional, multi-variant structural automotive components

Aim of the project CustoMat3D is to develop a simulation-based, material-specific laser additive manufacturing (LAM) process chain for the automotive industry.

 In concrete terms, new aluminum alloys for LAM shall be developed, which meet the automotive-specific requirements for strength, crash, part quality, etc. Finally, the process chain of highly functional vehicle structures shall be validated.

The IWT is responsible for the development of tailor-made aluminum materials for LAM production. An alloying concept was developed which uses the fast cooling rates in the LAM process to provide a competitive alternative to widely used materials. The suitability of the material was demonstrated using structural and chassis components for automotive applications.

Editing: WT-LW, VT-SK, EDAG Engineering GmbH, Concept Laser GmbH, Mercedes-Benz AG, ECKA Granules Germany GmbH, Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM, Fraunhofer Research Institution for Additive Production Technologies IAPT, MAGMA Gießereitechnologie GmbH

Funding: BMBF ProMat_3D 03XP0101G

Duration: 02/2017 - 01/2020

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:

M.Sc. Daniel Knoop / Farhad Mostaghimi
Tel.: +49421 218 51435
E-Mail: dknoop(at)iwt-bremen.de

PORE-Ti - Machining optimized printing of Ti6Al4V components for composite parts with CFRP

The aim of this project is the production and machining of titanium-CFRP composite components whose titanium component is produced by selective laser melting.

The aim is to investigate whether the machining properties of the titanium-CFRP composite component can be positively influenced by introducing pores into the titanium. The focus is also on the potential for optimising the geometry of drilling and milling tools.
Additively manufactured components are usually produced close to the final contour. However, it is not always possible to do without machining, especially if the printed component is further processed into a composite component with a fibre composite material. This places special demands on the production process and tools, especially when combining titanium and CFRP.
Titanium is considered to be a difficult material to machine, with significantly higher forces acting on the cutting edge than is the case with CFRP. Therefore, tools for machining titanium are provided with a defined cutting edge rounding to prevent cutting edge chipping. With CFRP, however, this rounding leads to increased delamination or reamed bore walls. This poses a continuing challenge for the machining of titanium CFRP composites.

This project was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Editing: IWT-WT/ IWT-FT/Isemann

Funding: EFRE_LURAFO

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
Dipl.-Ing. Annika Repenning
Tel.: +49421 218 51150
E-Mail: repenning(at)iwt-bremen.de

Tobias Kinner-Becker
Tel.: +49421 218 51492
E-Mail: kinner-becker(at)iwt-bremen.de

Pegasus - Development of a pressure gas atomization process for a cost and material efficient production of aluminum alloy powder for additive manufacturing

Within the project “Pegasus” a novel pressure-gas-atomization process (PGA) will be developed to significantly increase the cost and material efficiency in the production and processing of aluminum powders. 

The potentially narrower particle size distribution of powders produced by PGA increases material efficiency and could thus create both ecological and economic advantages compared to conventional technology. In order to evaluate these effects, the produced aluminum alloys will be investigated with respect to their suitability for additive manufacturing. The focus is mainly on the characterization and processing of temperature sensitive powder alloys.

Editing: IWT-VT / WT

Funding: BMWI-AiF/ZIM

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
M.Sc. Marcel Hesselmann
Tel.: 0421 218-64549
E-Mail: hesselmann(at)iwt-bremen.de

RobustAM - Robust and efficient processes for laser additive manufacturing

The objective of the project is to reduce the variability of quality-relevant product parameters (e.g. porosity) in laser additive manufacturing of metallic components.

Using the example of a Ti6Al4V component, it is to be demonstrated that the component service life can be significantly improved compared to the state of the art through appropriate understanding of the interactions and further development of the individual process steps, as well as improved process monitoring. In this way, the required testing effort should be reduced in the medium term and ideally only carried out selectively. Therefore, the data quality from the processes, a deeper understanding of the cross-process step interactions and the effects of defects on the component lifetime will be investigated.

This project was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Editing: WT-LW, AKON Robotics, AMSIS GmbH, BIAS GmbH, Materialise GmbH, Testia GmbH

Associated partner: Airbus Operations GmbH

Funding: EFRE-LURAFO3001C

Duration: 15.04.2020 until 30.06.2022

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
Dr.-Ing. Christian Werner
Telefon: +49421 218 51354
E-Mail: werner(at)iwt-bremen.de

         

 

        

SupStruct3D - Phenomenological Model Calibration for the Automatic Generation of Optimised Support Structures for Laser Additive Manufacturing

The aim of the joint project is to develop a tool that enables these support structures to be generated fully automatically and optimised for each construction process in order to reduce process time, material and post-processing effort.

This is because components that are laser-additively produced from metal powder usually have to be stabilised during the construction job by so-called support structures.

For this purpose, a test specimen development is first necessary, which ensures that the specimens always fail in the area of the support structure (not in the overhang to the clamping area of the tensile testing machine) and are tested in a non-preloaded state. The subsequent mechanical characterisation of varying support structure is incorporated into an extended material model. With the help of a few printed calibration samples, the support optimisation module can then make it possible to generate the optimal support structure without lengthy tests.

This project was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Editing: IWT-WT-LW

Funding: EFRE-FUE0616B

Cooperation partner: Additive Works GmbH

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
M.Sc. Lena Heemann
Tel.: +49421 218 51414
E-Mail: heemann(at)iwt-bremen.de

GenMat3D – Generation of tailored material properties by selective laser beam melting for launcher structures

The overall aim of the GenMat3D project is the development of a new type of process control for laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), which enables the production of components with material properties tailored to the specific requirements.

Such a process control could be used in integrally printed large bionic structures in the aerospace industry. By applying local gradation, adapted to the requirements, the aim is to decrease production times while optimizing the weight of the components at the same time. To make this possible, correlations between the process parameters and the resulting component properties must be determined. Especially on the microscale there is no sufficient knowledge about the influence of component temperature and geometry on the material properties.

This project was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Editing: WT-LW, Ariane Group GmbH, Materialise GmbH, Reiner Seefried GmbH

Funding: EFRE_LURAFO2002A

Duration: 01.04.2019 - 31.03.2022

This project is part of the research focus "Additive Manufacturing" at IWT Bremen.

Contact:
M.Sc. Daniel Knoop
Tel.: +49421 218 51435
E-Mail: dknoop(at)iwt-bremen.de